Paharpur Buddhist Vihar or Sompur Vihar or Sompur Mahabihar is an ancient Buddhist monastery that is currently destroyed.
Paharpur Buddhist Vihar or Sompur Vihar or Sompur Mahabihar is an ancient Buddhist monastery that is currently destroyed.
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Sri Dharmapaldev, the second king of the dynasty, was building this monastery in the late eighth century or the ninth century. In 7 Sir Sir Cunningham discovered this great feat.
UNESCO gave it the status of a World Heritage Site in the 5th.
Paharpur can be called the largest Buddhist monastery in the world. This may be compared to the Nalanda Mahabharat in India.
It was the most famous Buddhist religious center of Buddhism for three years. Not only from different places in the subcontinent, Buddhists from China, Tibet, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, and other countries used to come here to practice religion and theology. In the tenth century AD, the Acharya of Bihar was Atish Dipankar Sreesan.
Location and volume
The capital of Pundravardhana was situated between Pundranagar (the present Mahasthan) and the other city, Kotibarsha (present Bangarh), the Sompur Mahabihar. Its ruins are located in the village of Paharpur in Badalgachi upazila of Naogaon district, now under the greater Rajshahi of Bangladesh.
On the other hand, the distance from Jamalganj railway station in Joypurhat district is only 4 km to the west. Its geographical location ranges from 25 ° 7 north to 25 ° 7 north latitude and 5 ° 8 east to 3 ° 8 east longitude. The archeological site is located in an area of about 1.5 square kilometers (5 hectares) in the village. The archaeological site has a quadrilateral plan of the land. It is located in the flood plains of north Bengal, Bangladesh, which includes the upper area of the Barendra of the Pleistocene period.
The soil is red due to the presence of iron ore in the soil. However, currently the soil is covered under sediment in most places. It survives as a mountainous structure, about 4.5 meters high from the surrounding plain. Locals used to call it the Gopal Cheetah Hill; Since then its name has been Paharpur, though its real name is Sompur Vihar.
The context of discovery
Soompur Mahabihar, Bangladesh.
Photo of a section of the Soompur Mahabharat.
The structure of the courtyard of the Soompur Mahabharat.
After the arrival of the British in the Indian subcontinent, they started conducting survey work in all places. Buchanan Hamilton conducted survey work in eastern India; Who visited Paharpur at any one time between 8 and 12 AD. This was the first archaeological visit to Paharpur. Then Westmacott visited the site. They return to the country to share their experiences in newspapers. By this date, in 9 CE, Sir Alexander Cunningham visited the historic site. After the inspection, he expressed interest in digging up the land extensively. But the landlord, the landlord of Bolihar, stopped him from doing so. So he relieved himself by digging in a small part of the Bihar area and a small part of the central slope of the ancient shrine. During the excavation, he discovered a square building with an open section around the central mound, which was 22 feet in length. Finally, under the Archaeological Law of the 5th century, the place was declared as an antiquity preserved in the 5th century.
History and background
In the middle of the 8th century, Heuen Ysang came to Pundravardhan, and in his description there is no mention of the monastery and temple in Sompur. Gopal's son Dharmapala (1 - 122 AD) ascended the throne and ruled for a long time, extending the state beyond the Bengal Bihar to the Gandhara on the northwestern border of Pakistan. Emperor Dharmapal was a very devout Buddhist and he founded Vikramshila and Sompur Vihar. According to others, the author of the famous Tibetan history book "Pag Sam Zhon Zhang" very clearly mentions the huge monastery and the high temple built in Soompur by Devpal's son Devpal (1-5). The monks of Sompur Vihar donated money and treasure gems to various Buddhist pilgrimage places like Nalanda, Buddha, etc. It is mentioned in various scripts that indicate the prosperous condition in the 5th - 5th centuries. Apart from the Sompur Vihar, patrons of the Pala kings up to the 8th century, there are references to Agrapur (the foremost of Rajshahi), Ushampur, Gotpur, Atipur and Jagdal (Jagdal of Rajshahi). At the end of the 8th century, the first feast of Gurjar Raj and Mahendra Pal did special damage to the Pala empire. Later, in the latter part of the 8th century, King Mahaipal (8-9) of the Pala dynasty restored the empire and repaired Sompur Vihar. But after the death of Mahipal and his son Nayapal, the Pala dynasty began to decline again. On this occasion, Chediraj Karna, Cholaraj Rajendra and Dibbo, a native of the middle class, invaded Barindbhumi after a feudal Narapati. The destruction of the Paharpur temple and the monastery in Nalanda is probably an attack of this period. In the 8th century, the Rampal of Pala descent recovered the heartland. In the 12th century, the Sena kings who came from Karnataka in the south of the Deccan occupied Bengal. Sompur lost royal patronage to them. It was at this time that Sompur fell for the last time. In the beginning of the 5th century, Ikhtiyaruddin Muhammad - Bin - Bakhtiyar Khilji invaded Bengal and occupied almost northern Bengal. Probably because of the anti-idolatrous attitude of these Muslim rulers, the monastery and temple of Buddhists were completely destroyed.
Paharpur excavation can be divided into two parts. The first was during the pre-independence period of Bangladesh, mainly in the British era, and secondly in the eighties in the post-independence period. In 4 Cunningham took the first initiative. But he had to stop only by digging the top of the central mound against the zamindar of Bolihar. In this excavation, a room about 5m high with a raised section was discovered. After a long time, in the joint efforts of the Kolkata University, Barinda Research Council and Indian Archaeological Survey Department in 1223, and the excavation of Sharad Kumar Roy, a member of the Zamindar family of Dighapatia, was resumed. This year, when the excavation was conducted in the southwestern part of the site, led by the historic DR Bhandarkar, uniformed rooms and quarters were found in the north-south. Rakhaldas Bandopadhyay excavated in 1223-23 and discovered the main staircase north of the central mound, the terracotta decorative wall, and the pavilion or hall house on the north side, along the path. Consequently, for the first time, the idea of the landscaping and wall painting of the monastery was given. On 6-8 and 8-12, GC Chandra excavated the southwest corner of Bihar and adjoining quarters. In 1-4, the Indian Archaeological Survey Department re-excavated under the supervision of Kashinath Dikshit. The remains of the monastery and the remains of a temple, along with a bunch of stupas in Satyapir's Vita, were found. After World War II, Rafiq Mughal conducted deep excavations in several rooms in the eastern arm.
After independence, Bangladesh Archeology Department started the second phase of excavation in '3-5,' to search for new information and to confirm the findings of the previously discovered cells. Re-excavation was carried out in 1-3 by removing unnecessary waste from the Bihar courtyard and the accumulated soil of the previous excavation to ensure a systematic drainage system so that the existing waterlogging in Bihar was removed and the salinity reduced.
The land plan of the Buddhist monastery is four-sided. The north and south bubbles are 25.5 m each and the east and west bubbles are 20.5 m. Its boundaries were surrounded by walls. Along the border walls were small cells lined up in the interior. There are 5 cells in the north arm and 3 on the other three sides. Three floors of these rooms have been discovered. Each floor bed was made in a very sturdy way with a thick protruding brick. In the last era, altars of various sizes were constructed on the floor in 12 rooms. From this it can be inferred that in the first period, all the rooms were used as monks' dwellings, but later some rooms were converted into prayer halls.
Each of the rooms has a door. These doors are wide on the inside but thin on the outside. Niche is available in some rooms. There are several daily-use items available on the floor of the rooms containing the niche. The length of the rooms is 8.2m and the width is 1.5m inside. The back wall of the room, ie the border wall, is 1.5m and the front wall is 2.5m wide. In front of the rooms is a 2.5m wide porch. Each arm is connected with a ladder with an open square on the inside.
The main gate is along the middle of the north arm of Bihar. There is a pillar hall on the outside and inside, and a small room next to it. These axes were used for various purposes. There was another small entryway between the main gate and the northeast corner of Bihar. The staircase used to enter the open courtyard from here still exists today. There were also similar stairs to the north, south and west sides. Among them, there are only signs of a ladder on the west side. There was a pond in front of the entrance to the north arm for 5 years. According to the data obtained in the excavation of 1-3, the pond was excavated during the next period of the first construction period and the ladder was destroyed during this period. Later the pond was filled.
The central temple
The ruins of the central temple are in the middle of the open courtyard of the innermost part of the Bihar. Now it is 25m high, but the main temple was at least 5m high. The crucifixion of the land-plan of this temple goes upward in three decreasing steps. The length and breadth of each crossbow is 1.5m and 5.5m. In the center of the cushion are several additional walls angularly connected. At the center of the original plan is a vacant quadrilateral with no doors and windows. This room extends from the floor of the temple to the top. Originally, the temple was built in the center of this vacant lot. Around this room, four rooms and pavilions have been constructed in the second phase of the temple. As a result, the temple has a crucifix. In parallel to the temple plan, there are circular paths surrounding the walls. Accordingly, the cruciform features have been kept intact by adding four cells around the wall of the circular path of the second stage and parallel to it. In parallel to the first phase, the walls to the east, west and south of the base of the temple have been erected. There was a staircase in the middle of the north side. Later, the stairs were destroyed and some new structures were erected on it.
A brick floor has been discovered in a central vacant room. The floor is located on the same level of room and room around the outside of the room. But from the adjoining rooms there is no path or door to the central room and there is no evidence that it was closed before and afterwards. There is nothing altar or niche in the room. It is therefore assumed that the bar was an instrument for the strong construction of the high walls of the temple. Statues were probably placed in the rooms around it. There is no sign of the top of the temple, so nothing can be said about the roof.
The walls of the central vacant room are decorated, but the exterior of the walls of each step is adorned with raised cornices, ornamented bricks and lined terracotta panels. There is a drainage drainage to the edge of the cornice in connection with the extremities of the cruciform plan. The mouth of the roaring lions is built on the face of the roaring lions. There are 5 niches on the outside of the base wall. Each of them had a stone sculpture.
The ruins of some more buildings are found in the open courtyard in the middle of Bihar. The properties of some of these buildings could not be identified. The dining area and kitchen are located in the southeast of the courtyard. Between these two installations there is a 5m long brick sewer and it has three wells in a row. There are also some solicitation stupas, administrative buildings, portraits of the central temple, etc. The stupa, located to the southeast of the proposed stupas, has a star shaped angle. The stupa, which is set in the middle of a stage, is a well-drained well. Other proverbial stupas are spatially constructed. The northeastern buildings of the quarters were probably used for administrative and other purposes.
Bathrooms and toilets
It is basically an installation located outside Bihar. A number of baths and toilets were built on a platform 20m south of the southern wall of Bihar. The stage is 12m long in the east-west and 5.2m wide in the north-south. It is connected by a high barrier path to the room number 12 of Bihar. Below this path, there is a vault arch with a diameter of 1.82m wide and 2.5m high parallel to the Bihar wall. This was probably done to facilitate the movement of freeways and around the exterior of the Bihar.
About 5m south of the Bihar's southeastern corner, about 6m wide bath is located. On each side of it, each wall is 1.5m wide. The ghat was built with steep brick, and had huge stones at its highest and lowest steps. From the surface, the ferry slopes down about 12m. There was a layer of thick sand on the pier. From this it is assumed that the ghat reservoir was particularly associated with the river.
A building located 12m west to the east of Snaghat has been found locally called the Gandheshwari Temple. It has a length of 1.5m and a width of 1.5m. The design of the floral and the material used to knit it, with full-blown puddles of brick on its front walls, seems to have been the first building of the Muslim era in this country. It has a quadrilateral hall. The lower part of an octagonal pillar is found in the middle of the hall. On the outside of a wall that rises to the west, there is a square worship room with a 1.5m arm. Besides, there are four statues in the hall as well. Its floor is built of steep bricks and bales are different from other architectural designs in Paharpur.
Notable statues preserved in the museum adjacent to Paharpur
Chamunda statue of sandstone
A cool statue of a red stone
Vishnu fragment of Krishna stone
Ganesha, standing by Krishna stone
Statue of sandstone gravel
Oil paintings of the Maharani of Dubalhati
The damaged statue of Hargouri
Krishna stone is a broken statue of Narayan
Uma statue of Krishna stone
Gauri statue of sandstone
Vishnu statue of sandstone
Vishnu idol of Krishna stone
Statue of the sun
Shivling of black stone
Mansa statue of sandstone
Paharpur Boeddhistiese Vihar
Paharpur Boeddhistiese Bihar
Paharpur Boeddhistiese Vihar of Sompur Vihar of Sompur Mahabihar is 'n antieke Boeddhistiese klooster wat tans vernietig word. Sri Dharmapaldev, die tweede koning van die dinastie, het hierdie klooster in die laat agste eeu of die negende eeu gebou. In 7 ontdek Sir Cunningham hierdie wonderlike prestasie. UNESCO het dit die status van 'n Wêrelderfenisgebied in die 5de jaar gegee.
geleentheid het Chediraj Karna, Cholaraj Rajendra en Dibbo, 'n boorling van die middelklas, Barindbhumi binnegeval na 'n feodale Narapati. Die vernietiging van die Paharpur-tempel en die klooster in Nalanda is waarskynlik 'n aanval van hierdie tydperk. In die 8ste eeu het die Hargouri
Krishna-klip is 'n gebreekte standbeeld van Narayan
Uma-standbeeld van Krishna-klip
Gauri-standbeeld van sandsteen
Vishnu standbeeld van sandsteen
Vishnu afgod van Krishna klip
Standbeeld van die son
Verskuiwing van swart klip
Mansa standbeeld van sandsteen
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